Sep 23·18 min read

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This free practice test will familiarize you with most of the question types found on the TOEFL iBT® test. Please note that this test is not a simulation of the TOEFL iBT® test. You will not receive scores and your answers will not be saved. In the Reading section, you will answer questions about reading passages. Unlike the actual test.

On Friday, four days before the US presidential election, the United States recorded 100,000 new cases of Covid-19. This figure recorded the highest increase in cases of corona virus in a day worldwide.
In total, the United States has suffered 9 million cases of Covid-19 as of Friday, or nearly 3% of the population with nearly 229,000 deaths since the pandemic outbreak earlier this year, according to a Reuters report, October 31, 1996.

US health authorities on Friday confirmed that 100,233 people have tested positive for Covid-19 over the past 24 hours.
Friday’s tally set the highest daily Covid-19 record in the US for the fifth time in 10 days, surpassing the previous day’s highest daily spike of 91,248 new cases.
The report also represents the world’s highest national daily casualty toll during the pandemic, surpassing India’s record 24-hour spike in daily cases of 97,894 recorded in September.
On Friday dozens of states individually reported a record number of new daily cases.
Serious cases of Covid-19 are also on the rise, as hospitals in six states report having the most patients with the disease since the pandemic began. The number of Covid-19 patients hospitalized has increased by more than 50% in October to 46,000, the highest since mid-August.
Among the states hardest hit were the states most contested in the campaign between Republican President Donald Trump and Democrat Joe Biden, namely Michigan, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin.
More than 1,000 people died from the virus on Thursday, the third time the daily death toll has exceeded that this month, and the death rate is expected to continue rising. Covid-19 claimed at least 926 more deaths as of Friday.
The University of Washington’s latest prediction model projects the death toll, which had held at a monthly pace of more than 22,000 for most of October, will start climbing next month towards a new record of more than 72,000 in January.
The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation’s January projection would surpass the nearly 61,000 deaths in April when the pandemic first exploded in the United States and flooded New York City hospitals.
Joe Biden and his Democrats in Congress have criticized President Trump for handling his health crisis.
In the US House of Representatives, Democrats released a report on Friday condemning the Trump administration’s pandemic response as “one of the worst leadership failures in American history”.
“At least 6 million Americans have fallen into poverty and millions more are unemployed,” the report said.
The 71-page interim report by Democrat staff from the House Election Subcommittee on the Coronavirus Crisis also said investigators identified more than 60 instances in which Trump administration officials rejected or overruled top scientist advice to advance the president’s political interests.
“The government’s response to this economic crisis has benefited large corporations and wealthy Americans, while leaving behind many disadvantaged communities and struggling small businesses,” the report said.
After being hospitalized for Covid-19 in early October, Trump continued a massive campaign that drew thousands of supporters who gathered and many were not wearing masks. The Trump campaign says rallies are safe and that masks and social distancing are respected.
A CNN investigation found that 14 of the 17 states surveyed showed an increase in the rate of Covid-19 cases only one month after hosting a Donald Trump campaign event.

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Icame to Medium out of frustration. I had read an article in an online “prosumer” magazine that has the air of a serious scientific journal, but which fails to encompass the heart of science — the debate — by disallowing any comments or unsolicited rebuttals/responses to their articles.
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Do you want to publish a book on Medium?
Unfortunately, I had already manifested, through my furiously dancing fingertips, a 2,700 word essay pointing out the ignorance I felt strongly present in the magazine article, only to find there was no way to share it — cue Medium.com.
I was impressed with the response to the article on Medium, which was my first — 26K views, 7K reads, 611 fans, and 500 euros in my pocket to date. And I was even more impressed by the tools that Medium provides an author.
While the interface is as simple as paper, knowing what passages a reader highlights, how many views turn into full reads, how many people follow you after reading something that you write, what their interests are — so that you can see how people coming from different backgrounds engage with your writing — and of course, being able to have detailed responses to your work, are just nothing short of a godsend for an author. And this led me to try publishing a book on Medium.
The book is a big one, nearly 800 pages in paperback format. It’s that big because it is a collection of related writings: a set of meditation practices which are fairly simple, but which require detailed instructions since they are being communicated via text and not one-on-one guidance. However, the practices use an unusual support in place of the breath — which is the more common, but deficient in particular ways, support today. This then necessitates an explanation of the support’s uniqueness, part of which entails detailed quotations from current and ancient writings and related explanations, on this particular meditation support. But these all come from various spiritual traditions, and none of them are framed within our modern mechanistic materialism, thus there is a necessity to explain how things differ from how they are understood today, in order that the reader understand exactly what they are using. So it’s part philosophy, part science, part practice, and part historical documentation.
Why Publish a Book on Medium
You might think this is totally inappropriate for Medium, and there are some shortcomings, but for me the biggest reason to attempt publishing this book here is the potential audience, and the availability that Medium affords me as a writer.
While there are still many physical book readers — myself among them — the option to have a book on a mobile device is just such a no-brainer. And while Ebooks are good for large publishers who can (and do) command a nice bit of change for their product, for a small writer, ebooks don’t offer much of any benefit over what Medium provides. And in fact, the tools that Medium provides, which I mentioned above, are absent from ebooks.
And of course, having an ebook still leaves you searching for an audience.
So the biggest reason for launching a book on Medium has two aspects: availability and readers. Minor writers such as myself just don’t have the ability to make their work available to a very significant audience. My first book, which was self-published, was limited to Amazon’s various country web-stores. Although it enjoyed some limited success — especially for a philosophical work, it was difficult to find outside of Amazon’s universe. With Medium it is different. Anyone can access Medium.com from anywhere on Earth, so my work is widely available — and that was my biggest checkbox. And of course, the potential audience on Medium is not limited to merely members and current readers of Medium, but can be garnered via social media, word of mouth, and friends, all of whom can be directed to the Medium site, with little effort.
There is also the cost and hassle savings of not hosting your own blog, which was another alternative I considered. I still buy the domain names and setup email addresses as appropriate, but I no longer see any reason to host a website.
For many years I have maintained a Wordpress site, and that is a chore I don’t have time for. Such small websites have the same security and hacking worries as the biggest names, and it is all on your shoulders. I never realized just how much of a problem it is until I subscribed to a service available to Wordpress sites via a plugin called Wordfence, which not only scanned my server for hacks on a daily basis, but also monitored all traffic in and out. Once that was installed I could sit and watch the dozens of daily automated login attempts by hackers around the world trying to break into my site in order to hijack it into their botnets. If you have a personal website it is very likely part of a botnet, or even part of a crypto-currency mining operation. Sheesh. For a small writer it makes little sense anymore.
How to Publish a Structured Book on MediumAs for the nuts and bolts of doing it, there are three main issues you have to deal with: Medium is structured to publish “stories” of a limited length, so your work has to be forced into that format; Medium does not provide the kind of navigational tools that are available in an ebook; and readers on Medium don’t expect an article to be part of a larger work.
I’m going to take them in reverse order. It has been my experience, so far, that many Medium users don’t notice that the “story” they are reading is actually part of a larger work, even though it is in a “publication” on medium. I frequently receive responses to a carved-out “story” that is part of a larger section of the book where my reader explains to me all the things I should have said, which I have already said in the preceding and successive “stories” to that one in the book publication. This is a bit frustrating — for both the reader and myself, but hey!, Medium rocks at bringing me readers.
A related problem is that readers will see a “story” featured in one section of Medium and jump into it, while a subsequent part of the same section of the book will not be featured at all, or in some other section of Medium. Thus for the audience, continuity is fragmented.
So it is useful that Medium provides the “follow” mechanism for a publication, but it makes it incumbent upon the writer to release material in a sequential order so that the followers, who still might not realize it is a book — especially if they haven’t read the “About” introduction to it — will follow the text in somewhat of a logical order.
And of course, that workaround is only useful as you are publishing the book. Later, when the whole book is available in Medium, the sequential releasing is no longer in effect.
Given this problem, I have started to make use of the “hidden” story attribute that you can set on and off as needed in order to make sequences of articles only accessible in order, by only allowing the first part of a book section to be publicly announced, for example. The other parts are hyperlinked to the earlier ones.
The downside to that is that such unlisted stories are unavailable for generating income through the Members program of Medium.
Medium does provide a publication header on each story, that a reader can tap to get to the homepage of the publication, but I found it useful to add a standard footer image to each article as well, that provides the same function, as it is more useful — in my opinion — for the reader, after reading an article that they enjoyed, to be able to jump up to the homepage of the publication, rather than having to scroll up to the header.
When I find that I have to break a section of the book down into smaller “stories,” I add a notification below the main image so that the reader knows the “story” is part of a “sequence” of stories. I use the word “sequence” because “series” is a Medium term for a different kind of open-ended series, and “collection” does not have the same ordered sense.
I was not happy though that the only way to add this notification was either as a title/subtitle or as standard text — even with bolding and italicization available. I wanted something that was clearly setoff from my text in a different typeface, but not overshadowing it in any way either. I realized that what I wanted was a font size and style much like that of the attribution found underneath images on Medium.
My solution was to do exactly that, only with a non-visible and diminutive image. I found a 1-pixel transparent gif and I place that where I want the notification to appear. Then I place the hyperlinked text of the notification, usually linking back to the table of contents (I’ll explain shortly) for that sequence of articles, in the attribution area of the image. Voila!
The line “Do you want to publish a book on Medium?” at the top of this story, under the main image, is an example of what it looks like, although I didn’t place a link on it.
Navigation was another problem. Each publication has a navigation bar that appears just below the header of the publication’s homepage — and only there — and this is limited to a single level of story or featured stories pages.
Thus, your menu structure is normally restricted to just a top-level list of sections or groupings, each of which can only have a single story, or a list of stories without any deeper structure — you can only have a collection of stories that share a tag, a single story, or a page of featured stories. That wasn’t going to work for me, and for a while I was stymied about how to have the kind of complex hierarchy that I needed.
The first thing I did was to reproduce the publication’s navigation bar near the top of every story page in the book. I place it just above the start of the text, underneath the title. I did this because my book has a structural flow, and not just a collection of articles. Being able to move back-and-forth between sections makes sense for the kind of book I am publishing, where the reader may want to refer to another part of the text for needed information.
As an added bonus, the navigation bar I created adds a degree of empty space between the title and the body of text which in my opinion looks nicer.
I place the navigation bar in the same way I discussed above, by placing a 1 pixel transparent gif image at the location, and adding my hyperlinked top-level menu sections in the image’s attribution line. This is what the secondary navigation menu for my book looks like.ABOUT PROEM PRELIMINARIES PRACTICES INSIGHTS APHORISMS BACK MATTER
The one problem I was confronted with was that the long urls of each story do not always work in the apps. (I know not why) Instead, you have to use a short url, consisting of only the unique identifier of each article, if you want to create a “table of contents” to directly link to stories. Here is how I do this:
I create a story without tags and no images that will serve as a table of contents for a subsection of the book. The title is the section name, or name of the sequence of “stories” that I have cut a long section of text into. The subtitle is just “Table of Contents.” You can then add hyperlinked titles and optional short descriptions to construct your table of contents.
Note that this “story” should be unlisted so that it doesn’t appear as a story on your profile, and untagged so that it doesn’t show up in any kind of search, in case you decide to have it listed. Of course, your needs will dictate how you decide to do this. There is nothing wrong with having a TOC discoverable in a search, and available for payment under the Medium Partner program.
For example, the “About” story of Tranquillity’s Secret is accessible with this url:
To find the identifier for a story, you look at its url in a browser and copy the identifier, which is a sequence of 12 numbers and letters (a hexadecimal number). When I do this in Safari on my laptop, the url for the “About” story looks like this:
Note the bolded identifier at the end of the url — this is the number you want to append on the short form url, as I did in my example.
A story’s url can take on different forms, so it is not always structured as in the previous example. This is what a friend’s link to the About story looks like:
Note that the story identifier appears just before the question mark “?” appearing in the link. I’ve put it in bold again in the example above. The other longer string of numbers and letters at the end of the url is the bypass token for Medium’s paywall. As an aside, I had to make the About eligible for payment under the Partners program in order for a “friend’s link” to be created.
When you are editing a story, even before publishing it, there is a slightly different url, which looks like this:
Note again that the unique identifier is there just before the “/edit.” Note also, that you can just copy this initial url and truncate that suffix off of it to obtain the short url form directly.
However, you can’t link an unlisted story into the main Navigation bar of a publication, so you first have to create the TOC story, setting it as unlisted, and publish it. This way neither your followers, nor anyone else on Medium will receive a notification/email about its publication, then list it again and tie it into the Navigation bar. Once you’ve done that you can — and probably should — unlist it a final time. It will still be accessible when clicked on the navigation bar.
The final piece of the navigation puzzle is to use another hyperlinked attribution line (as in the above examples) to the next article in sequence within the book at the end of the article. I do this before any footnotes, above the footer for the publication. Here is what it looks like:
Continue on to What is Meditation? ?The end result of applying these methods is a good usability case for publishing a book on Medium.
In the apps, tapping on any one of these hyperlinks results in a quick overwrite of the present page. Returning to the previous page, in effect, backtracking through your browsing history, is built-in to the Medium apps. Simply tap on the left angle bracket in the top left corner of your display. This will return you to the page you came from. Continuing to tap on this icon will continue to backtrack to previous pages.
In the browser, the effect of clicking on one of the hyperlinks is different — a new browser page for each story opens. It’s not as friction-free as the mobile apps are, but I haven’t found a solution for this yet. You can set the browsers default behavior to opening a new tab, instead of a new window, but you still end up with a lot of tabs or windows, without the ability to retrace your progress through the book in an automated way. Instead, you have to click on the tab or window for the previous story or menu.
Finally, the medium apps allow readers to bookmark a story, and even archive it for later use, both of which are useful in reading your publication as a book.
Closing Thoughts
So far the results of this have been beyond anything I thought would happen. The publication has garnered 50 followers very quickly, and a significantly higher number of visitors each day. It is, in fact, now taking off, as more readers run across it.
But this brings up the last issue with publishing a book such as this on Medium: you are limited to only a certain number of stories published each day. If you exceed that limit — which I did one day trying to gain momentum in the process of publishing the book — you get an error message that your account is locked. Presumably, Medium has that as a protection for spamming.
The only solution to this is to use the scheduling function for publishing your books “stories,” so that the stories are published in an orderly fashion without exceeding the Medium imposed limit.
That’s It so far. If you have any questions, feel free to ask!.

In this guide you will find a free TOEFL reading test with answers, a lot ofTOEFL reading practice questions, and information on the 10 different reading questiontypes to help you prepare successfully for your TOEFL reading test. This pagecontains everything you need to know and the essential skills for a high reading score.

First off, if you're looking to take a free TOEFL reading practice test or are just curious what taking an official TOEFL reading test is like, then click the START TOEFL reading SAMPLE TEST button below.

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If you want to practice TOEFL reading questions on the go and don't have an internet connection,then BestMyTest's free TOEFL reading practice test PDF downloadwill come in handy. It includes a complete TOEFL reading passage with questions and answers.

Next up is a list of all our TOEFL reading questions where you can study each question at your own pace. To start a free TOEFL reading test question, click the Mock Test 1 link.

TOEFL reading practice questions

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Table Of Contents

TOEFL Reading Introduction

The reading section is the first section of the TOEFL iBT test. It tests your ability to read and answer questionsat an academic level. It contain 3-4 passages with each passage containing 10 questionsfor a total of 30-40 questions. Each passage is generally 600 to 700 words long.You'll have 54–72 minutes in which to finish this section.

When you are taking the reading test, you can skip answers and come back to them later.You can come back and change your answers at any time during the reading testing period.

Reading Difficulty Level

The TOEFL reading difficulty level is equivalent to an introductory undergraduate university textbook.Most of the passages' context is North American, but you may also seesome international contexts from United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. The passages cover a wide range of topics such as

  • Social science including anthropology, economics, psychology, urban studies, and sociology
  • Science and technology including astronomy, geology, chemistry, biology, physics, engineering
  • History, government, biography, geography, and culture
  • Art including literature, painting, sculpture, drama, and architecture

Even though the reading passages can be difficult to understand, you don't necessarily have to understand it all.By learning the strategies to answer each reading question type, you can get a high TOEFL score without fully understanding the reading passage. The first thing you need to learn are the different types of TOEFL reading question types.

The 10 TOEFL Reading Question Types

The TOEFL reading questions can be broken down into 10 different reading question types:

  1. Vocabulary
  2. Reference
  3. Inference
  4. Purpose
  5. Negative Factual Information
  6. Essential Information
  7. Detail
  8. Sentence Insertion
  9. Complete the Summary
  10. Complete the Table

Our comprehensive lessons will tackle each of these question types in detail. To view them, create a free account and start your 7 day free trial.

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Below you will find 12 TOEFL reading sample questions.

1. According to paragraph 1, which of the following is true of the Late Cretaceous climate?
  1. Summers were very warm and winters were very cold.
  2. Shallow seas on the continents caused frequent temperature changes.
  3. The climate was very similar to today’s climate.
  4. The climate did not change dramatically from season to season.
2. Which of the following reasons is suggested in paragraph 2 for the extinction of the dinosaurs?
  1. Changes in the lengths of the days and nights during the Late Cretaceous period
  2. Droughts caused by the movement of seaways back into the ocean
  3. The change from mild to severe climates during the Late Cretaceous period
  4. An extreme decrease in the average yearly temperature over 10,000 years

Detail Question
Quesiton 1 and Question 2 are detail questions. Detail questions ask you about information that’s specifically stated in a small part of the passage.They generally focus on the “who,” “what,” “when,” “where,” and “why” as explained by the author.
[1] Paleontologists have argued for a long time that the demise of the dinosaurs wascaused by climatic alterations associated with slow changes in the positions ofcontinents and seas resulting from plate tectonics. Off and on throughout theCretaceous (the last period of the Mesozoic era, during which dinosaurs flourished),large shallow seas covered extensive areas of the continents. Data from diversesources, including geochemical evidence preserved in seafloor sediments, indicatethat the Late Cretaceous climate was milder than today’s. The days were not too hot,nor the nights too cold. The summers were not too warm, nor the winters too frigid.The shallow seas on the continents probably buffered the temperature of the nearbyair, keeping it relatively constant.
[2] At the end of the Cretaceous, the geological record shows that these seawaysretreated from the continents back into the major ocean basins. No one knowswhy. Over a period of about 100,000 years, while the seas pulled back, climatesaround the world became dramatically more extreme: warmer days, cooler nights;hotter summers, colder winters. Perhaps dinosaurs could not tolerate these extremetemperature changes and became extinct.

3. Why does the author mention the survival of “snakes, lizards, turtles, and crocodiles” in paragraph 3?
  1. To argue that dinosaurs may have become extinct because they were not cold-blooded animals
  2. To question the adequacy of the hypothesis that climatic change related to sea levels caused the extinction of the dinosaurs
  3. To present examples of animals that could maintain a livable body temperature more easily than dinosaurs
  4. To support a hypothesis that these animals were not as sensitive to climate changes in the Cretaceous period as they are today
Free Download Toefl Ibt Reading Practice Test Pdf
Purpose Question
Purpose questions require you to understand why the author has included pieces of information. The answer is not directly stated in the reading passage. To solve this type of question, you need to understand the main point of the paragraph and how the referenced information is related to the main point of the paragraph. You will see the question phrased something like the following: Why does the author mention XXX in paragraph 2? Here is an example.
[3] If true, though, why did cold-blooded animals such as snakes, lizards, turtles, andcrocodiles survive the freezing winters and torrid summers? These animals are at themercy of the climate to maintain a livable body temperature. It’s hard to understandwhy they would not be affected, whereas dinosaurs were left too crippled to cope,especially if, as some scientists believe, dinosaurs were warm-blooded. Criticsalso point out that the shallow seaways had retreated from and advanced on thecontinents numerous times during the Mesozoic, so why did the dinosaurs survivethe climatic changes associated with the earlier fluctuations but not with this one?Although initially appealing, the hypothesis of a simple climatic change related to sealevels is insufficient to explain all the data.

4. The word “cope” in the passage is closest in meaning to?
  1. adapt
  2. move
  3. continue
  4. compete
5. The word “fluctuations” in the passage is closest in meaning to?
  1. extreme
  2. retreats
  3. periods
  4. variations

Vocabulary Question
Question 4 and 5 are vocabulary questions. In a 'Vocabulary question', you are asked what a word or phrase is closestin meaning to and are given 4 answer options. You need to be able to understand the meaningof the word as it is used in the passage.
[3] If true, though, why did cold-blooded animals such as snakes, lizards, turtles, andcrocodiles survive the freezing winters and torrid summers? These animals are at themercy of the climate to maintain a livable body temperature. It’s hard to understandwhy they would not be affected, whereas dinosaurs were left too crippled to cope,especially if, as some scientists believe, dinosaurs were warm-blooded. Criticsalso point out that the shallow seaways had retreated from and advanced on thecontinents numerous times during the Mesozoic, so why did the dinosaurs survivethe climatic changes associated with the earlier fluctuations but not with this one?Although initially appealing, the hypothesis of a simple climatic change related to sealevels is insufficient to explain all the data.

6. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 4? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
  1. The fossil record suggests that there was an abrupt extinction of many plants and animals at the end of the Mesozoic era.
  2. Few fossils of the Mesozoic era have survived in the rocks that mark the end of the Cretaceous.
  3. Fossils from the Cretaceous period of the Mesozoic up to the beginning of the Cenozoic era have been removed from the layers of rock that surrounded them.
  4. Plants and animals from the Mesozoic era were unable to survive in the Cenozoic era.

Essential Information Question
In an “Essential Information question”, you will see the question you see an entire sentence highlighted in the reading passage.The question will ask you to choose which of the 4 answer option sentences is equal to the highlighted sentence. The correct sentence will be paragraphed so it is different than the highlighted one, but still convey all the important information. Incorrect sentences will represent a detail or concept inaccurately, leave out an important detail, change the original meaning of the sentence
[4] Dissatisfaction with conventional explanations for dinosaur extinctions led to asurprising observation that, in turn, has suggested a new hypothesis. Many plantsand animals disappear abruptly from the fossil record as one moves from layersof rock documenting the end of the Cretaceous up into rocks representing thebeginning of the Cenozoic (the era after the Mesozoic). Between the last layer ofCretaceous rock and the first layer of Cenozoic rock, there is often a thin layer ofclay. Scientists felt that they could get an idea of how long the extinctions took bydetermining how long it took to deposit this one centimeter of clay and they thought they could determine the time it took to deposit the clay by determining the amountof the element iridium (Ir) it contained.

7. In paragraph 4, all the following questions are answered EXCEPT:
  1. Why is there a layer of clay between the rocks of the Cretaceous and Cenozoic?
  2. Why were scientists interested in determining how long it took to deposit the layer of clay at the end of the Cretaceous?
  3. What was the effect of the surprising observation scientists made?
  4. Why did scientists want more information about the dinosaur extinction at the end of the Cretaceous?

Negative Factual Information Question
You can recognize a negative factual information question by either the word “NOT” or “EXCEPT” in the question.The question can appear like the following: According to the passage, which of the following is NOT true of X?.
[4] Dissatisfaction with conventional explanations for dinosaur extinctions led to asurprising observation that, in turn, has suggested a new hypothesis. Many plantsand animals disappear abruptly from the fossil record as one moves from layersof rock documenting the end of the Cretaceous up into rocks representing thebeginning of the Cenozoic (the era after the Mesozoic). Between the last layer ofCretaceous rock and the first layer of Cenozoic rock, there is often a thin layer ofclay. Scientists felt that they could get an idea of how long the extinctions took bydetermining how long it took to deposit this one centimeter of clay and they thoughtthey could determine the time it took to deposit the clay by determining the amountof the element iridium (Ir) it contained.

8. Paragraph 5 implies that a special explanation of the Ir in the boundary clay is needed because
  1. the Ir in microscopic meteorites reaching Earth during the Cretaceous period would have been incorporated into Earth’s core
  2. the Ir in the boundary clay was deposited much more than a million years ago
  3. the concentration of Ir in the boundary clay is higher than in microscopic meteorites
  4. the amount of Ir in the boundary clay is too great to have come from microscopic meteorites during the time the boundary clay was deposited

Free Download Toefl Ibt Reading Practice Test Pdf Youtube

Inference Question
In an 'Inference' question, you will see the question phrased something like the following: In paragraph 5,what does the author imply about ….? or What can be inferred from paragraph 5? In this type of question, the answeris not directly stated in the reading passage. It requires you to draw conclusions based on information that isgiven in the passage. You need to find out the correct conclusion from the choices.
[5] Ir has not been common at Earth’s surface since the very beginning of theplanet’s history. Because it usually exists in a metallic state, it was preferentiallyincorporated in Earth’s core as the planet cooled and consolidated. Ir is found in highconcentrations in some meteorites, in which the solar system’s original chemicalcomposition is preserved. Even today, microscopic meteorites continually bombardEarth, falling on both land and sea. By measuring how many of these meteorites fallto Earth over a given period of time, scientists can estimate how long it might havetaken to deposit the observed amount of Ir in the boundary clay. (A) These calculations suggest that a period of about one million years would have beenrequired. (B) However, other reliable evidence suggests that the deposition of the boundary clay couldnot have taken one million years. (C) So the unusually high concentration of Ir seems to require a specialexplanation. (D)

9. In paragraph 5 of the passage, there is a missing sentence. The paragraph is repeated below andshows four letters (A, B, C, and D) that indicate where the following sentence could be added.
Consequently, the idea that the Ir in the boundary clay came from microscopic meteorites cannot be accepted.
Where would the sentence best fit?
  • (A)
  • (B)
  • (C)
  • (D)

Sentence Insertion Question
In a 'Sentence Insertion' question, you will be asked to decide where a new sentence best fits into the reading passage.This question type tests your understanding of the logic in the passage.It also tests your ability to understand the grammatical connections from one sentence to another.
[5] Ir has not been common at Earth’s surface since the very beginning of theplanet’s history. Because it usually exists in a metallic state, it was preferentiallyincorporated in Earth’s core as the planet cooled and consolidated. Ir is found in highconcentrations in some meteorites, in which the solar system’s original chemicalcomposition is preserved. Even today, microscopic meteorites continually bombardEarth, falling on both land and sea. By measuring how many of these meteorites fallto Earth over a given period of time, scientists can estimate how long it might havetaken to deposit the observed amount of Ir in the boundary clay. (A) These calculations suggest that a period of about one million years would have beenrequired. (B) However, other reliable evidence suggests that the deposition of the boundary clay couldnot have taken one million years. (C) So the unusually high concentration of Ir seems to require a specialexplanation. (D)

14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below.Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage.Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage.This question is worth 2 points.
Drag your answer choices to the spaces where they belong. To remove an answer choice, drag it back.
For a long time scientists have argued that the extinction of the dinosaurs was related to climate change.

  1. Extreme changes in daily and seasonal climates preceded the retreat of the seas back into the major ocean basins.
  2. A simple climate change does not explain some important data related to the extinction of the dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous.
  3. The retreat of the seaways at the end of the Cretaceous has not been fully explained.
  4. The abruptness of extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous and the high concentration of Ir found in clay deposited at that time have fueled the development of a new hypothesis.
  5. Some scientists hypothesize that the extinction of the dinosaurs resulted from the effects of an asteroid collision with Earth.
  6. Boundary clay layers like the one between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic are used by scientists to determine the rate at which an extinct species declined.
Test
Complete the Summary Question
In a ‘Complete the Summary’ question, you are given a summary statement of the reading passage and 6 answer options.You need to drag and drop 3 answers that represent major ideas or contain important information from the passage.
You need to drag and drop them from the bottom area of your computer screen into a blank area above with 3 positions marked off . The 3 correct options will NOT have the exact wording of any sentence in the passage. The other 3 will have errors in detail, or state an unimportant concept.This question always has a value of 2 points. You will get 1 point if you get 2 out of 3 correct.
[1] Paleontologists have argued for a long time that the demise of the dinosaurs wascaused by climatic alterations associated with slow changes in the positions ofcontinents and seas resulting from plate tectonics. Off and on throughout theCretaceous (the last period of the Mesozoic era, during which dinosaurs flourished),large shallow seas covered extensive areas of the continents. Data from diversesources, including geochemical evidence preserved in seafloor sediments, indicatethat the Late Cretaceous climate was milder than today’s. The days were not too hot,nor the nights too cold. The summers were not too warm, nor the winters too frigid.The shallow seas on the continents probably buffered the temperature of the nearbyair, keeping it relatively constant.
[2] At the end of the Cretaceous, the geological record shows that these seawaysretreated from the continents back into the major ocean basins. No one knowswhy. Over a period of about 100,000 years, while the seas pulled back, climatesaround the world became dramatically more extreme: warmer days, cooler nights;hotter summers, colder winters. Perhaps dinosaurs could not tolerate these extremetemperature changes and became extinct.
[3] If true, though, why did cold-blooded animals such as snakes, lizards, turtles, andcrocodiles survive the freezing winters and torrid summers? These animals are at themercy of the climate to maintain a livable body temperature. It’s hard to understandwhy they would not be affected, whereas dinosaurs were left too crippled to cope,especially if, as some scientists believe, dinosaurs were warm-blooded. Criticsalso point out that the shallow seaways had retreated from and advanced on thecontinents numerous times during the Mesozoic, so why did the dinosaurs survivethe climatic changes associated with the earlier fluctuations but not with this one?Although initially appealing, the hypothesis of a simple climatic change related to sealevels is insufficient to explain all the data.
[4] Dissatisfaction with conventional explanations for dinosaur extinctions led to asurprising observation that, in turn, has suggested a new hypothesis. Many plantsand animals disappear abruptly from the fossil record as one moves from layersof rock documenting the end of the Cretaceous up into rocks representing thebeginning of the Cenozoic (the era after the Mesozoic). Between the last layer of Cretaceous rock and the first layer of Cenozoic rock, there is often a thin layer ofclay. Scientists felt that they could get an idea of how long the extinctions took bydetermining how long it took to deposit this one centimeter of clay and they thoughtthey could determine the time it took to deposit the clay by determining the amountof the element iridium (Ir) it contained.
[5] Ir has not been common at Earth’s surface since the very beginning of theplanet’s history. Because it usually exists in a metallic state, it was preferentiallyincorporated in Earth’s core as the planet cooled and consolidated. Ir is found in highconcentrations in some meteorites, in which the solar system’s original chemicalcomposition is preserved. Even today, microscopic meteorites continually bombardEarth, falling on both land and sea. By measuring how many of these meteorites fallto Earth over a given period of time, scientists can estimate how long it might havetaken to deposit the observed amount of Ir in the boundary clay. (A) These calculations suggest that a period of about one million years would have beenrequired. (B) However, other reliable evidence suggests that the deposition of the boundary clay couldnot have taken one million years. (C) So the unusually high concentration of Ir seems to require a specialexplanation. (D)
[6] In view of these facts, scientists hypothesized that a single large asteroid, about 10to 15 kilometers across, collided with Earth, and the resulting fallout created theboundary clay. Their calculations show that the impact kicked up a dust cloud thatcut off sunlight for several months, inhibiting photosynthesis in plants; decreasedsurface temperatures on continents to below freezing; caused extreme episodesof acid rain; and significantly raised long-term global temperatures through thegreenhouse effect. This disruption of food chain and climate would have eradicatedthe dinosaurs and other organisms in less than fifty years.

1. The word 'those' in paragraph 1 refers to:
  • gene pool
  • survival
  • natural selection
  • traits characteristics

Reference Question
In a 'Reference' question, you are asked what the highlighted word refers to. If it's a pronoun then you need to identify what word the pronoun is replacing.
[1] Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution is known as one of the most important and controversial scientific theories ever published. Natural selection contributes to the basis of Darwin's Theory of Evolution. One of the core tenets of Darwin's theory is that more offspring are always produced for a species than can possibly survive. Yet, no two offspring are perfectly alike. As a result, through random mutation and genetic drift, over time offspring develop new traits and characteristics. Over time beneficial traits and characteristics that promote survival will be kept in the gene pool while those that harm survival will be selected against. Therefore, this natural selection ensures that a species gradually improves itself over an extended duration of time. On the other hand, as a species continues to 'improve' itself, it branches out to create entirely new species that are no longer capable of reproducing together.

14.Complete the table by matching the phrases below

Directions: Select the appropriate phrases from the answer choices and match them to the Radiocarbon Dating and Faunal Analysis to which they relate. Some of the answer choices will NOT be used. This question is worth 4 points.

Drag your answer choices to the spaces where they belong. To remove an answer choice, drag it back.To review the passage, click VIEW TEXT.

Faunal Analysis in Cuba and CaliforniaRadiocarbon dating in Two Creeks Fossil Forest

  1. Tar and benzene are used in the analytical process.
  2. This analytical method has determined when the Pleistocene epoch ended.
  3. Initial estimates were made by comparing with similar occurrences in Scandinavia.
  4. Over 70 tests were done on fossil samples.
  5. Radiocarbon dating tracked the fossils to 13,370 years before present.
  6. Successful radiocarbon dating of the forest samples proves the end of glaciations in North America.

Complete the Table Question
In a “Complete a table” question, you will see 2 or 3 categories in an empty table. From the options provided, you must select which ones correctly belong to each category. There will also be 2 options that won't be used. There will either be 5 or 7 correct options depending on the question.
This question has a value of 3 or 4 points. Questions with 5 correct options are worth 3 points, and ones with 7 are worth 4 points. You get 1 point if you get 3/5 or 4/7 correct. You get 2 points if get 4/5 or 5/7 correct. You get 3 points if you get 5/5 or 6/7 correct
This question tests your ability to organize major ideas of the reading passage and important information. It also tests your understandings of cause-effect relationships and compare and contrast relationships.
[1] The method of Radiocarbon dating was invented in the late 1940s by Willard Libby. It is a method to determine the age of an object by using radiocarbon properties. Radiocarbon is created in the atmosphere through the interaction of nitrogen and cosmic rays. When combined with oxygen, carbon dioxide is produced. CO2 enters plants through photosynthesis; animals and humans incorporate carbon when they eat plants. After the death of a plant or animal, the rate of carbon begins to decline – this is called the radioactive decay of carbon. When analysts measure the amount of carbon in this decayed object, they can calculate when it died. The furthest date that has been reliably measured back to is around 50,000 years.
[2] Research into the proportion of carbon in the atmosphere has been going on for more than five decades. Due to the increase in the burning of fossil fuels and nuclear testing in the 20th century, there was a significant increase in the level of carbon in our atmosphere, so this adds to the complication of carbon calculation. Originally, scientists used samples of solid carbon for testing. However, they realized that converting the samples to liquid or gas offered more precise results. Accelerator mass spectrometry is the current method of analysis. All carbon atoms in the sample are counted; its results are fast and very accurate.
[3] Archaeology has been profoundly affected by progress in radiocarbon dating. Faunal analysis has also been impacted by progress in this area. Faunal analysis is the study of the remains of animals with the aim to help us understand human activities in the past.
[4] At the end of the Pleistocene Era, there were many rapid extinction of megafauna, particularly in the Americas. There is a notable report by Vartanyan et al. on the extinction of pygmy mammoths, dating them back to 3700 years before present using radiocarbon dating. Other scientists have used this method to calculate the age of the extinct species in the La Brea tar pits in California. In their faunal analysis, they employed a pre-treatment method that included the use of tar. They collected bones, divided them into small pieces and chips and crushed them. The bone fragments were treated with a variety of solvents, including benzene, to examine a species of Cuban Caribbean ground sloth and the Xenarthra armadillo. Carbon was then examined and radiocarbon dates were obtained from the organic material separated from the tar. Scientists were able to date the sloth remains to around 5400 before present. This information is important as it may show that the extinction of the sloth was caused by human arrival in Cuba.
[5] Much work is necessary to further investigate the abundant fossil materials found in Central and South American pits, including those of Talara, Peru, where there are a lot of remains of extinct megafauna and human artefacts. Ongoing studies of these sites can help to verify the theories of extinction and the impact on human behaviour.
[6] One notable achievement in radio carbon dating is Two Creeks Fossil Forest. During the 20th century, a goal of geologists was to establish the date of transition from the Pleistocene to the Holocene era. The Pleistocene epoch began 2.6 million years ago and the current, Holocene period began 11,700 years ago. In Wisconsin, USA, a fossil forest called Two Creeks was discovered. Prior to radiocarbon dating, the trees in this forest had been dated back to around 24,000 years ago, the estimated date for the end of the Pleistocene period. This estimate had been made through correlation with sequences in Scandinavia. Libby and later scientists investigated Two Creeks and used radiocarbon dating to date the trees more accurately. Samples from the fossil forest were used in tests in over 70 labs, dating the trees back to 13,730 before present. This achievement is now considered a notable result in the development of our understanding of glaciation in North America and the end of the Pleistocene epoch.

How to Prepare for the TOEFL Reading Test

Most students fail on the TOEFL Reading test because of either of the following two reasons

  1. Slow reading speed
  2. Poor reading strategies
Improving your reading speed

For you to improve your reading speed, you need to improve your vocabulary and practicedissecting sentences. One strategy to dissect a sentence is to look for the subject and verb of the sentence. Finding the subject and verb will help you better understand the main idea of said sentence. Keep in mind, a common feature of a TOEFL reading passageis to join strings of ideas to form long compound sentences. This produces large chunksthat students have a hard time absorbing. Do not get overwhelmed by its length, justlook for the subject and verb, the rest of the ideas will flow. Here is our article on 'How to Read Faster By Breaking Down Long Sentences'.By following tips and strategies on this article, you will know how to read faster and boost your TOEFL reading score.).Alternatively, you can watch the following 3 videos on how to break down long sentences.

TOEFL Reading Lesson - Breaking down long sentences Part 1 - General breakdown
TOEFL Reading Lesson - Breaking down long sentences Part 2 - Turning long sentences into short ones
TOEFL Reading Lesson - Breaking down long sentences Part 3 - Grammar points

Another disadvantage to having a slow reading speed is it makes skimming or scanning a reading passage more difficult.The process of quickly skimming through a reading passage for specific keywords or main ideas is a requirement for youto employ successful reading strategies to improve your TOEFL reading score. In other words,skimming is a critical skill to ensure you complete all questions in the allotted time frame.

Implementing successful TOEFL reading strategies

Once you can read and comprehend a passage with a rate of, at least, 220 words per minute, you'll be ready to start implementing our strategies. All too often, students spend too much time reading the passages and not enough time answering the questions.

Let's do the math on the following scenario:

  • 3 passages
  • 30 questions
  • 54 minutes

Let's say it takes you around 10 minutes to read each passage meaning you've spent 30 minutes of your 54 minutes reading. So now you only have 24 minutes to answer 30 questions.

Now if you do the math that only leaves you with an average 48 seconds to answer each question. (Let's see...48s x 30q = about 1440secs. Now divide that by 60secs and we get exactly 24 minutes. Yep the math adds up. )

So the only way to increase the overall average time to answer each question, is to reduce the amount of time you spend reading each passage...or maybe you don't read the entire passage at all...maybe you just skim the passage in less than 3 minutes to get the gist of it. By doing that you would leave yourself with double the average time per question around 1 minute and 30 seconds.

That's right! We are suggesting you DON'T read the entire passage, at least not at first. Let's have a look at the step by step guide to this strategy.

  1. Read the the first sentence of every paragraph.
    First, read the first sentence of every paragraph, so you get a basic idea of what the whole reading passage is about. You don't want to read the whole passage before you start answering the questions.That will be inefficient. Many students make this mistake and find themselves running out of time.
  2. The questions first approachStart reading question 1. Remember to only read the question and not the answer choices; Reading the answer choices is a waste of your time and energy. It will not help you. Once you understand the question, start reading the corresponding passage from the beginning in search of the answer. Once you answer question 1, go onto question 2 repeating the steps you took to answer question 1. Do this for every single question. The TOEFL questions proceed in chronological order, so the answerto question 1 is in the beginning of the passage and the answer to question 12 is towards the end.
  3. Don't get stuck!We've discussed this before, but it's so important, we will discuss it again. If you find yourself spending too much time on a question, you must skip it and move on to the next question. Finish all the questions you know, then go back and finish the tougher questions.The absolute worst thing you can do is get stuck for several minutes on a question worth only 1 point.(Want to test this strategy out now? Take a free reading mock test.)
3-Step Study System for TOEFL Reading

Now you should have a good understanding of the reading section's test structureand have experience answering reading questions using the reading timing strategy. It is time to start your TOEFL reading preparation.Below is our 3 step system for preparing for the TOEFL reading section.

Step 1: Complete all TOEFL reading lessons
Step 1 may seem obvious, but it is necessary. You need to complete all our TOEFL reading lessons available to you. Specifically, the reading timing strategy and techniques found throughout the reading lessons. These techniques will help you answer questions faster to give you more time to think and decrease stress levels. Stress can lead to poor performance, so it's important you go into your test prepared and confident.

Step 2: Practice, practice, practice!
For step 2, you will practice and apply the techniques you learned using our TOEFL reading practices.You will find all our reading practices in our Question Bank: Click here to go there now. You can also utilize our TOEFL simulation test software to help improve things like time and stress management during the TOEFL test. Our test simulation software looks and feels identical to an actual TOEFL test. We offer 4 reserved TOEFL simulated tests and another 15 non-reserved practice tests. Reserved tests use questions that are not found in the question bank.

Every time you complete a practice, our TOEFL instructor software will track and record your scoreand determine what your strengths and weaknesses are in each TOEFL section. It will also offer a study schedule based on what you need the most help on.

Step 3: Learning by reviewing
Step 3 is the most important step. You will need to spend a lot of time on step 3 in order to improve. There is no secret to success. You must work hard. Follow the list below to complete step 3:

  1. Review and redo all questions you got wrong, making sure you understand why you got it wrong.
    Having trouble understanding why you got a question wrong?
    Ask one of our TOEFL instructors for help using our Ask an Instructor feature included with every subscription.
    Our Ask an Instructor feature gives you an opportunity to communicate with our TOEFL instructors. You can ask them anything regarding TOEFL and English.
    To ask a question, simply click the button found on every question in the question bank. Our instructors will answer your question within 1 - 3 business days.
  2. Reread paragraphs until you understand what the passage is about.
  3. Write down any words that you do not understand and learn what they mean.
  4. Study and pay attention to transition words to help you learn to identify and create relationships between sentences.
  5. If you find yourself struggling with a particular academic category, then go through and learn our list of vocabulary for that particular category. If you can, get some cue cards and study them everyday. Later, come back to the question and you will find you are no longer struggling with it!

Our TOEFL Reading Practice Questions

Our TOEFL reading practice questions were designed to look and feel identical to the official TOEFL test. We made sure everything was the same including difficulty, formatting, and even how the test functions. If you're curious about the amount of TOEFL reading practices we have, then open the reading question menu and see for yourself. Please note we offer 4 simulated TOEFL tests with never before seen questions. This means that in addition to our mock reading practices there are an additional 12 waiting for you in the form of a simulated TOEFL test. You just have to go to our TOEFL Practice Test section. However, you'll need a premium account to access those tests.

Free Download Toefl Ibt Reading Practice Test Pdf Template

The TOEFL Reading section is the easiest section to prepare for. We believe that once you can master the reading strategiesmentioned earlier in this article and complete all available TOEFL reading practices before your TOEFL exam, you willget a high score on the TOEFL reading section.

If you need help with vocabulary to improve your reading speed, you can use our vocabulary system which includes:

  1. TOEFL Vocabulary Lists (There is a mini-lesson for each vocabulary that teaches you how to use the word correctly.)
  2. TOEFL Vocabulary Flashcards (Keep track of which words you know and which you don't)
  3. TOEFL Vocabulary Exercises (Interactive exercises that speeds up learning)
What's next

Sign up for a 7 day free trial to access the following basic TOEFL reading lessons and start your TOEFL preparation.

  • TOEFL Reading Introduction
  • TOEFL Reading Strategies for Success
  • Vocabulary Question
  • Reference Question
  • Inference Question
  • Essential Information Question
  • Sentence Insertion Question
  • Purpose Question
  • Detail Question
  • Negative Factual Information Question
  • Complete The Summary Question
  • Complete The Table Question
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Free TOEFL Reading English Resources

A strong Reading comprehension is critical to scoring high in the TOEFL reading test.Utilizing our resources will help you improve your TOEFL reading skills significantly, but sometimes it's nice to sit backand read something that isn't related to TOEFL. Luke something relaxing that can still help improve your overall reading comprehension.

Below are a few amazing free resources you can use to train and maintain your TOEFL reading skills.

1. FluentU - 7 Easy English Reading Resources

This resource doesn't contain any material for improving your reading skills, butwhat it does do is provide some really high quality free resources you can usefor your reading comprehension. FYI, you'll need to scroll down a bit to get to the resource list, but it's worth it.

Ibt Toefl Exam Sample

2. British Council - Read Upper B2 Intermediate Stories with Exercises

Have you heard of the British Council? They help create IELTS test questions.The page I'm linking you to is a reading comprehension page. It's a little hard to find at first,so what you need to do is click on either magazine or stories found on the bottom left side,you can't miss it. It doesn't matter what you choose, they both offer the same training.You'll be taken to a new page where you can select the post that interests you.Within that post, you can start your reading training.

3. ETS TOEFL - Free & Paid TOEFL Resources

you can never go wrong with official TOEFL reading preparation from the makers of TOEFL.Scroll down and you will find some free resources that will surely help you improve your TOEFL reading score.

4. Wikipedia

If we're talking about TOEFL reading practice, then Wikipedia deserves a spot.It only has, basically, unlimited reading resources of almost every single reading topic you can think of.Definitely has 100% of topics that will appear in your TOEFL reading test. However, the one downside is thereading can be a bit dry, but if you can make it into a reading training exercise, that should help keep your attention.

TOEFL Practice Guides

Free Download Toefl Ibt Reading Practice Test Pdf 2021 2022

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